Although they are independent countries, they are included in this chapter because they have more ties to Russia than to the region of Southwest Asia to their south. Petroleum was discovered here in the eighth century, and hand-dug oil wells produced oil as early as the fifteenth century. At the eastern edge of Russia’s European core lie the Ural Mountains, which act as a natural divide between Europe and Asia. Russia’s second-largest city, with a population of about five million, is St. Petersburg. Jan Zrzavy, 07 Oct 2002. What is the largest city in Transcaucasia? The country has made the switch from the old Soviet command economy to a free-market economy. The independent countries of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan make up the region of Transcaucasia. What are Russia’s four main regions and what are the main qualities of each? A shallow magnitude 4.9 earthquake was reported in the evening near Novyy Uoyan, Buryatiya Republic, Russia. Russia has a federal structure and includes 85 federal subjects, consisting of: . Elbrus is the highest peak on the European continent as well as the highest peak in Russia. Oil and natural gas are the country’s main export products and have been a central focus of its economy. In this dynamic environment, the imperative Siberia, as a place name, actually refers to all of Asian Russia east of the Ural Mountains, including the Eastern Frontier and the Russian Far East. One of these, the Chechen Republic (or Chechnya), has never signed the Federation Treaty to join the Russian Federation; in fact, Chechnya proposed independence after the breakup of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). What happened to Chechnya? The Caucasus is characterized by ethnic and religious diversity and by a desire for independence from Russia. They have been inextricably connected to Russia ever since they were annexed by the Russian Empire in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and they were all former republics within the Soviet Union. However, it has the potential to emerge again as an important link to the Pacific Rim markets. Each district includes several regions, such as oblast, republic, krai, okrug. Which of the three Transcaucasian countries has the least opportunity to gain wealth? The eastern location kept these resources out of the hands of the Nazis during World War II, and the resources themselves helped in the war effort. It is one of the most active geological regions on the Pacific Rim. This river has been a vital link in the transportation system of Russia for centuries and connects major industrial centers from the Moscow region to the south through an extensive network of canals and other waterways. In 2003, the United Nations called Grozny, Chechnya’s capital, the most destroyed city on Earth. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, these three small republics declared independence and separated from the rest of what became Russia. At the Kemerovo.SU website there are images of arms and flag of Kemerovo oblast and, if I understand correctly, these symbols have been adopted 07.06.2002. Across the strait from Japan is Russia’s Far East region, with the port of Vladivostok (population about 578,000) as its primary city. | Site Map. On the eve of Russia's national Unity Day, a national holiday celebrated on November 4, REGION Group of Companies arranged a project called ‘Russia. Today's Russia consists of seven federal districts. Moscow was Russia’s region with the largest number of conducted COVID-19 tests. Most of this region was conquered by the Russian Empire during the nineteenth century and held as part of the Soviet Union in the twentieth. Central Russia makes up the historic heart and homeland of the country. e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. Moscow, Russia’s capital city, anchors a central industrial area that is home to more than fifty million people. The West Siberian Region is one of the largest economic regions in Russia. After fighting an unsuccessful war to remain free after the Russian Revolution, Georgia was absorbed into the Soviet Union. It feared the consequences if all twenty-one republics within the Russian Federation were declared independent countries. Identify the following key places on a map: Wikipedia, “Second Chechen War,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Chechen_War. Lake Baikal (400 miles long, 50 miles wide) holds more fresh water than all the US Great Lakes together and about 20 percent of all the liquid fresh water on the earth’s surface. This genocide continues to be commemorated annually on April 24, the traditional date of the Armenian Martyrs’ Day, but Turkey still denies the events were genocide. The total population of Russia is 145,166,731. Some of the countries are rich in petroleum reserves. What are the three independent countries of Transcaucasia, and when did they gain independence from Russia? The so-called "Volga maniac" killed and robbed 26 women across the Central, Volga, and Ural federal districts of Russia between 2011 and 2012. As much as the export of oil and natural gas has been an economic support for the country, it has not been without costs to the environment. Flag is blue and red vertically (1:2), flag ratio 1:2. However, only a minority of its population is ethnic Russian, and its people consist of a constellation of at least fifty ethnic groups speaking a variety of languages. Describe the physical attributes of Siberia and the Far East. Copyright © 2008-2020 LearningRussian.net. To the far north of St. Petersburg on the Barents Sea are the cities of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk. To the east, the Amur River creates the border between Russia and China until it flows north into the Sea of Okhotsk. A bitter conflict between Turks and Armenians during World War I resulted in the systematic deaths of as many as a million Armenians. Each district includes several regions, … The highest peak is Mt. The First Chechen War (1994–96) ended in a stalemate, and Russia allowed the Chechens to have de facto independence for several years. and the international code RUS are included, as well as the national flag (the flag was not used on some of the earliest plates of this format (about 1993-1994)). Most of the people converted to Sunni Islam in the 1700s to curry favor with the Ottomans and seek their protection against Russian encroachment. Neither South Ossetia nor Abkhazia are considered independent states by most of the world’s countries. Perceptions in the Euro-Atlantic. The Kuzbas is a region of coal, iron ore, and bauxite mining; timber processing; and steel and aluminum production industries. In addition to basic geographical information, you will also find stories about culture, life, history, sightseengs and things to do in Russian cities. According to US government sources, local scientists consider parts of Azerbaijan to be some of the most devastated environmental areas in the world. Terms of Service Even before the recent wars, Chechnya had a difficult past. About one million civilians died of starvation or during the bombardment, and hundreds of thousands fled the city, leaving the city nearly empty by the end of the siege. It is about the same size in area as the US state of Maine. While the agreement suspended the violence plaguing the region, it was viewed as heavily favorable for Azerbaijan, as it required the Armenian forces to withdraw from several areas. East of the Urals, in south-central Russia, is Russia’s Eastern Frontier, a region … Known as Russia’s geographic core, this includes the Moscow region, the Volga region, and the Ural Mountain region. Today, the country appears to be on the front lines of a renewed great-power rivalry that many analysts say will dominate international relations in the decades ahead. | Privacy Policy Like the other former Soviet republics, Armenia has shifted from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Many want to live in Moscow, but it is financially out of reach for many Russians. d. ^ Not recognized internationally as a part of Russia. Identify the economic base of cities in the Eastern Frontier and the identity of the world’s most voluminous freshwater lake. Moscow, Russia’s capital city, anchors a central industrial area that is home to more than fifty million people. In the southern portion of the Russian core lies a land bridge between Europe and Southwest Asia: a region dominated by the Caucasus Mountains. The most contentious region in Russia is the Caucasus Mountain region, especially the area of Chechnya. A November 2017 article in The Guardian, titled, "Revival of a Soviet Zion: Birobidzhan celebrates its Jewish heritage", examined the current status of the city and suggested that, even though the Jewish Autonomous Region in Russia's far east is now barely 1% Jewish, officials hope to woo back people who left after Soviet collapse. What physical feature demarcates the boundary between Europe and Asia in southern Russia? Figure 3.14 Mount Koryasky, an Active Volcano, and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, a Town on Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula. Russia and Turkey have brokered a peace deal for the Nagorny Karabakh conflict that greatly enhances their military presence in a region where they were losing influence. The most important of these is Novosibirsk, the third-largest city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg and home to about 1.4 million people. East of the Urals, in south-central Russia, is Russia’s Eastern Frontier, a region of planned cities, industrial plants, and raw-material processing centers. Stretching from the northern Ural Mountains to the Bering Strait, Siberia is larger than the entire United States but is home to only about fifteen million people. Name the major cities, rivers, and economic base of Russia’s core region. The city is not only noted for its industries but it is also the region’s center for the arts, music, and theater. Goods and raw materials from Siberia and nearby Sakhalin Island were processed here and shipped west by train. Siberia extends from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and the borders of Mongolia and China. Countries there are independent of Russia, although they have a long history of being part of the Russian and Soviet Empires. REGION: Regional Studies of Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia is a peer-reviewed international journal that explores the history and current political, economic, and … The Caucasus Mountains, higher than the European Alps, were formed by the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward into the Eurasian plate. Bordering North Korea and China, this Far East region is linked to Moscow by the Trans-Siberian Railway. Since then, its manufacturing sector has declined and Armenia has fallen back on agriculture and financial remittances from the approximately eight million Armenians living abroad to support its economy. Nevertheless, Chechnya was annexed by the Russian Empire. However, in this and some other geography textbooks, the term Siberia more specifically describes only the region north of the Eastern Frontier that extends to the Kamchatka Peninsula. The Republic of Karelia is a federal subject of Russia, which was formed in 1991 from the Karelian ASSR. During the Soviet era, those countries were classified as Soviet Socialist Republics, so it was easy for them to become independent countries when all the other republics (e.g., Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan) did so after 1991. Russia, country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. Large oil reserves are located beneath the Caspian Sea, and offshore wells with pipelines to shore have expanded throughout the Caspian Basin. Figure 3.16 Republics of Southern Russia, Including Chechnya. Between twenty-five thousand and fifty thousand Chechens were killed in the war, and between five thousand and eleven thousand Russian soldiers were also killed (Wikipedia). According to the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), the quake hit on Thursday 3 December 2020 at 8.37 pm local time at a shallow depth of 10 km. The Armenian Apostolic Church remains the country’s central religious institution, and the Old City of Jerusalem in Israel has an Armenian Quarter, an indication of Armenia’s early connection with Christianity. On the eastern edge of the continent, the mountainous Kamchatka Peninsula has twenty active volcanoes and more than one hundred inactive volcanoes. Ulrich Kühn; November 09, 2020; UNIDIR Most of Russia’s population and its major industries are located west of the Ural Mountains on the Russian Plain. Azerbaijan shares a border with the northern province of Iran, which is also called Azerbaijan. Xbox Supported Countries/Regions. Wars between Russia and groups in the Caucasus have claimed thousands of lives. Serious air, soil, and water pollution exist due to uncontrolled oil spills and the heavy use of chemicals in the agricultural sector. Its cities are located on strategic rivers with few overland highways connecting them. Once the preeminent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.; commonly known as the Soviet Union), Russia became an independent country after the dissolution of … Moscow, Russian Moskva, oblast (region), western Russia.The oblast surrounds and includes the city of Moscow, the capital of Russia.Moscow oblast was formed in 1929. Southern Russia is a region in Russia bordering the country's Central and Volga Regions to the north, Kazakhstan and the Caspian Sea to the east, Azerbaijan and Georgia to the south, the Black Sea and Ukraine to the west. The city was renamed Petrograd (1914–24) and Leningrad (1924–91) but today is often called Petersburg, or just “Peter” for short. During Soviet leader Josef Stalin’s reign of terror, more than five hundred thousand Chechens were loaded on train cars and shipped to Kazakhstan, where as many as half died. The Volga River flows through the core region of Russia, providing transportation, fresh water, and fishing. It is host to a music conservatory and a philharmonic orchestra, a division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and three major universities. Sakhalin Island and its coastal waters have oil and mineral resources. Its depth has been recently measured at 5,370 feet (more than a mile). Wealth has not been evenly distributed in the country, and at least one-fourth of the population still lives below the poverty line. The long history of this vibrant city and the infusion of oil revenues have given rise to a metropolitan center of activity that has attracted global business interests. Agricultural products and tourism have been Georgia’s main economic activities. Turkey and Russia have finalized an agreement that paves the way for the establishment of a joint monitoring center in Azerbaijan's Karabakh region. These low-lying mountains have an abundance of minerals and fossil fuels, which make the Ural Mountains ideal for industrial development. Oil and natural gas exploration and development have been extensive across Russia’s core region and have greatly increased Russia’s export profits. Description of the flag. On what sea is it located. Each of these federal subjects provides two political delegates and has equal political representation in the Federation Council. Here's a quick snapshot of the most inhabited Russian cities according to 2002 census. Geographically, these three countries are located on the border between the European and Asian continents. While the United States and its allies have taken significant punitive actions against Russia, they have made little headway in hel… Reconstruction of Grozny has slowly begun. The region… This travel guide includes information for tourists about Russian regions, cities and territories. Russia is a country about 1.8 times the size of the US occupying the vast area between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean. Shallow earthquakes are felt more strongly than deeper ones as they are closer to the surface. Russian troops pulled out of Georgia but supported the independence of South Ossetia and Georgia’s westernmost region of Abkhazia. West Siberian. miles (17,075,200 sq.km) and a population of almost 150 million people. Siberia, Russian Sibir, vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan, constituting all of northern Asia. It covers … Source: Map courtesy of the CIA World Factbook. It is ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse. In addition to waterways, the Trans-Siberian Railway is the major transportation link through the Eastern Frontier, connecting Moscow with the port city of Vladivostok in the Far East. Describe their 2008 conflict. Figure 3.15 Vladivostok Tram Opposite the Admiral’s Club on Its Way to the Railway Station, Vladivostok. What is the relationship between the countries of Georgia and Russia? Its greatest tragedy took place when it was under siege for twenty-nine months by the German military during World War II. When exploring Russia, it's a good idea to learn how the whole country is organized into Federal Subjects (a.k.a. Denis Stremoukhov looks at how and why different regions in Russia try to carve out their own foreign policy dynamics ‘The President of France himself is now behaving like a terrorist’, said Ramzan Kadyrov, expressing disapproval at Emmanuel Macron’s condemnation of the beheading of Samuel Paty, a school teacher. Permafrost may thaw near the surface during the short summer season but is permanently frozen beneath the surface. The Volga is the longest river in Europe. Strategic Challenges in the Baltic Sea Region: Russia, Deterrence, and Reassurance, edited by Ann-Sofie Dahl. World Regional Geography by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. These remittances, along with international aid and direct foreign investments, have helped stabilize Armenia’s economic situation. Before 1991, Vladivostok was closed to outsiders and was an important army and naval base for the Russian military. The vast majority of Russia’s population live in the western core area of the country, the region around the capital city of Moscow. Karelia is politically divided between Finland and Russia. However, Chechnya was administratively part of the USSR with no right to secession. What are some of the major environmental problems in Russia and Transcaucasia? The geographic area of the country decreased when the Ottoman Empire took control of western Armenia, and that region remains a part of Turkey to this day. Unrest in the regions of South Ossetia, Abkhazia, and Adjara (where the populations are generally not ethnic Georgian) has destabilized the country, making it more difficult to engage in the global economy. Many other countries, including the United States, condemned Russia for their action. Figure 3.17 Southern Russia and Transcaucasia. Most of the cities on the Barents Sea and in the Eastern Frontier were established for manufacturing or for the exploitation of raw materials. Russia and Georgia had a military conflict in 2008, when Russian troops entered the South Ossetian region to support its move toward independence from Georgia. Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) says it has broken up a cell of the Islamic State (IS) extremist group that was planning "acts of sabotage and terror" in the Moscow region. This former Soviet republic has a population of more than eight million in which more than 90 percent follow Islam. Over the course of its history, it has been at the boundary between the Ottoman Empire, the Persian Empire, and the Russian Empire. The country of Georgia has a long history of ancient kingdoms and a golden age including invasions by the Mongols, Ottomans, Persians, and Russians. Amur, oblast (province), far eastern Russia. At the end of the nineteenth century, this small country produced half the oil in the world. It has an area of 10, 672,000 sq. Although other territories to the south of Chechnya, such as Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, also declared their independence from Russia after 1991, they were never administratively part of Russia. Although rents, commodities, and domestic goods had fixed prices during the Communist era, the Soviet Union’s collapse changed all that. Type D (continental) climates dominate the southern portion of this region, and the territory consists mainly of coniferous forests in a biome called the taiga. Of the twenty-one republics, eight are located in southern Russia in the Caucasus region. A democratic-style central government has emerged in Georgia, and economic support has been provided by international aid and foreign investments. Today's Russia consists of seven federal districts. Azerbaijan is an independent country to the east of Armenia bordering the Caspian Sea. Very few people live in Siberia, but the region is rich with natural resources. South of Russia in the Caucasus is the region of Transcaucasia. Located on the Baltic Sea, it is western Russia’s leading port city. It is a country with its own distinctive alphabet and language and was the first country in the world to adopt Christianity as a state religion, an event traditionally dated to 301 CE. The Volga is the longest river in Europe at 2,293 miles, and it drains most of Russia’s western core region. There are vast resources in Siberia waiting to be extracted, and this treasure trove will play an important role in Russia’s economic future. If your country/region is not on the list, please check back with us soon—we expand our services frequently and may be coming to your country/region in the near future. See more. Georgetown University Press, 2018, 181 pp. During the Cold War era, it was one of the top five largest cities in the Soviet Union. Today, the Far East is finding itself on the periphery of Russia’s hierarchy of productivity. | The word Siberia conjures up visions of a cold and isolated place, which is true. To the west is the Black Sea, and to the east is the landlocked Caspian Sea. Motivated by many factors, Russia’s aggression in Ukraine has triggered the greatest security crisis in Europe since the Cold War. East of the Urals, in south-central Russia, is Russia’s Eastern Frontier, a region … This world-class city has an extensive subway and freeway system that is expanding to meet current growth demands. This guide is being constantly improved with new information about Russian travel destinations. Russia’s southern region of Ingushetia is about to become the first ever region in the country to go bankrupt, independent newspaper Novaya Gazeta reported Wednesday.. In 1689 Russia yielded the Amur region to China by the Treaty of Nerchinsk, but Russian Cossacks reincorporated it in the latter Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Caucasus region has been the main location of unrest within Russia. The Eastern Frontier. Relatively warm water from the North Atlantic drift circles around Norway to keep this northern port city fairly free of ice. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws. Region definition, an extensive, continuous part of a surface, space, or body: a region of the earth. All of the federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia. For a brief three years—from 1918 to 1921—Georgia was independent. Georgia considered South Ossetia to be a part of Georgia and called the Russians an occupying force. Both of these cities are in Russia’s far north, with long winters and exceedingly brief summers. During the Communist era, Moscow expanded from its nineteenth-century core (although the city dates from at least the twelfth century) and became an industrial city with planned neighborhoods. Today Moscow is one of the most expensive places to live in the world, with prices based on supply and demand. Below is a list of countries/regions where Xbox products and services are supported. Click on the name of each federal district below to learn more about its regions, cities, towns and urban-type settlements. The relationship between the United States and Russia is among the most critical bilateral relationships in the world, with implications well beyond the two states themselves. No trees grow in the tundra because of the semifrozen ground. A Flight Through the Ages’. constituent units of Russia). The vast northern region of Russia is sparsely inhabited but holds enormous quantities of natural resources such as oil, timber, diamonds, natural gas, gold, and silver. Located on the border between Georgia and Russia, Mt. Named after St. Peter in the Bible (not Peter the Great), it is a cultural center for Russia and a major tourist destination. Figure 3.13 Russia’s Eastern Frontier, the Far East, and Siberia. Since the Industrial Revolution, the rising value of petroleum for energy increased the industrial extraction of oil in Azerbaijan. Moscow alone has more than ten million residents, with about thirteen million in its metropolitan area, making it slightly smaller than the Los Angeles, California, metro area. The Caucasus Mountain range is considered the dividing line. What is the largest source of income in this region? Central industrial cities were created across the Eastern Frontier to take advantage of these resource opportunities. Why has Russia fought two wars in Chechnya since the Soviet Union’s collapse? Russia’s deputy prime minister, Tatiana Golikova, told Putin on Wednesday that 16 regions were in a critical situation with more than 90% of hospital beds occupied. Murmansk is a major military port for Russia’s navy and nuclear submarine fleet. After 1991, Russia decided that it would not allow territories that had been administratively governed by Russia to secede and has fought wars to prevent that from happening. Finally, the region number (77, 97, 99, 177, 197, 199, 777, and 799 for Moscow, 78, 98, 178, and 198 for Saint Petersburg, etc.) Known as Russia’s geographic core, this includes the Moscow region, the Volga region, and the Ural Mountain region. Begin by exploring the major districts of Russia, then browse down to the entities and cities within each district. The population is centered in two zones here: the Kuznetsk Basin (or Kuzbas, for short) and the Lake Baikal region. Arkhangelsk (which literally means “archangel”), used as a port for lumber exports, has a much shorter ice-free season than Murmansk. Below the poverty line home to more than 90 percent follow Islam political delegates and has political. In Europe and Asia in southern Russia by most of the CIA world Factbook cities. 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what region is russia in

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