Jefferis, Alan; Madsen, David (2005), Architectural Drafting and Design (5th ed. Learn basic engineering drawing formats Pre pare the student for future Engineering positions Increase ability to communicate with people through the language of technical drawing and sket ching. Its purpose is to accurately and unambiguously capture all the geometric features of a product or a component. A drawing is simply a line going for a walk. Drawing is fundamental to all other art. [13] In architecture, these include civil drawings, architectural drawings, structural drawings, mechanical systems drawings, electrical drawings, and plumbing drawings. Should not be more than 2 pagesss Home » Questions » Engineering » Mechanical Engineering » Design and Drafting » history and development of technical drawing Measurements taken from the drawing can be scaled up to produce or build a full size structure or machine, etc. Engineering the Industrial Revolution. IT IS THE MOST SIMPLE AND INTERACTIVE WAY TO LEARN ENGINEERING DRAWING.SYLLABUS IS RELATED TO rajiv gandhi proudyogiki vishwavidyalaya / rajiv gandhi TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY ,BHOPAL. 2. BS and ISO produce standards to show recommended practices but it is up to individuals to produce the drawings to a standard. Even tasks as simple as drawing two angled lines meeting at a point require a number of moves of the T-square and triangles, and in general, drafting can be a time-consuming process. Although drafting is sometimes accomplished by a project engineer, architect, or shop personnel (such as a machinist), skilled drafters (and/or designers) usually accomplish the task, and are always in demand to some degree. Why power waveform is not symmetrical to X-Axis in R-L circuit? [4] Architectural drawings describe and document an architect's design.[5]. is a drawing that visually expresses how something functions and is to be [8], According to Viola (2005), "illustrative techniques are often designed in a way that even a person with no technical understanding clearly understands the piece of art. A technical drawing, also known as an engineering drawing, is a detailed, precise diagram or plan that conveys information about how an object functions or is constructed. An exploded view drawing (EVD) can show the intended assembly of mechanical or other parts. A technical drawing is drawn precisely to a scale. The aim of technical illustration is "to generate expressive images that effectively convey certain information via the visual channel to the human observer". It includes a plan or set of plans for the building or other structures. It is how artists structure, plan and negotiate space. Assembly drawings show how different parts go together, identify those parts by number, and have a parts list, often referred to as a bill of materials. Radial-line development Radial-line developments are made from figures such as cones and pyramids. There is still much scope for error in the drawing when producing first and third angle orthographic projections, auxiliary projections and cross-section views. Templates are sold commercially by a number of vendors, usually customized to a specific task, but it is also not uncommon for a drafter to create his own templates. Engineering drawing began to evolve more rapidly in the late 18. th. The History of Technical Drawings Objectives The students will study the history of Technical Drawings The students will understand how technical drawing has changed over time. This includes practically all inventions except compositions of matter or processes, but a drawing may also be useful in the case of many processes. Ever since man has been building, erecting or fabricating, man has conveyed technical information about the project. Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed. Today we may still make maps, but the twenty-first century designer uses his or her technical… Development of surfaces of solids THIS SLIDE CONTAINS WHOLE SYLLABUS OF ENGINEERING DRAWING/GRAPHICS. In addition to the mastery of the mechanics of drawing lines, arcs and circles (and text) onto a piece of paper—with respect to the detailing of physical objects—the drafting effort requires a thorough understanding of geometry, trigonometry and spatial comprehension, and in all cases demands precision and accuracy, and attention to detail of high order. A sketch is a quickly executed, freehand drawing that is usually not intended as a finished work. In general, sketching is a quick way to record an idea for later use. What is seen will be drawn to the right of the front side. Today, the mechanics of the drafting task have largely been automated and accelerated through the use of computer-aided design systems (CAD). This basic drafting system requires an accurate table and constant attention to the positioning of the tools. Technical illustration is the use of illustration to visually communicate information of a technical nature. In this field, the term plan is often used when referring to the full section view of these drawings as viewed from three feet above finished floor to show the locations of doorways, windows, stairwells, etc. Architect's sketches primarily serve as a way to try out different ideas and establish a composition before a more finished work, especially when the finished work is expensive and time-consuming. century. unbiased opinionsincerely,Eric. A compressed handbook designed for the students of engineering disciplines for learning the basics of engineering drawing. This new edition has been updated to include the requirements of Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. (Michigan Historical Reprint Series) by Armangaud, Charles A and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. [7], The main purpose of technical illustration is to describe or explain these items to a more or less nontechnical audience. Multiview is a type of orthographic projection. A spline is a rubber coated articulated metal that can be manually bent to most curves. [14] In a technical service manual, this type of drawing may be referred to as an exploded view drawing or diagram. Ivan Viola and Meister E. Gröller (2005). Working drawings are the set of technical drawings used during the manufacturing phase of a product. To communicate all aspects of the shape or design, detail drawings are used. Inter state form of sales tax income tax? His postulates and axioms are the foundations of the Euclidian geometry upon which today's CAD software systems are built. In representing complex, three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional drawings, the objects can be described by at least one view plus material thickness note, 2, 3 or as many views and sections that are required to show all features of object. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? ISO "A series" papers sizes used in most countries of the world, The applicant for a patent will be required by law to furnish a drawing of the invention if or when the nature of the case requires a drawing to understand the invention with the job. are manufactured from thin sheet materials. Dimensioning, fits and tolerancing. The Practical Draughtsman's Book of Industrial Design, and Machinist's and Engineer's Companion: Forming a Complete Course of Mechanical Engineering and Architectural Drawing. [11] It shows the components of an object slightly separated by distance or suspended in surrounding space in the case of a three-dimensional exploded diagram. DRAFTING Drafting history goes back to 2000 BC, when a fossilized plan was found showing an aerial view of a Babylonian fortress. These are based upon the working drawings and updated to reflect any changes or alterations undertaken during construction or manufacture.[15]. Drawings can be studies for later paintings or sculptures as well as being an art form on their own. When did organ music become associated with baseball? RELATED History of Engineering Drawing Cosmetics and Toiletries in Mexico: A Strategic Reference, 2006 Peter Booker, in . In this case, the drafter places one or more triangles of known angles on the T-square—which is itself at right angles to the edge of the table—and can then draw lines at any chosen angle to others on the page. Generally a template is produced from an orthographic drawing when small quantities are required (larger quantities may justify the use of press tools), and the template will include allowances for bending and seams, bearing in mind the thickness of material used. The art and design that goes into making buildings is known as architecture. FIGURE 2.4 of FUNCTIONAL DIMENSIONS dim of a if "ith the led the re a mating to I OVERALL DIMENSIONS a of a of dl outside d 2.5 ge 24) The to of Il is omitted n is up to allow Auxiliary views utilize an additional projection plane other than the common planes in a multiview. Engineering drawings generally deal with mechanical engineered items, such as manufactured parts and equipment. The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been the recognised as a guide for practicing and student engineers to producing engineering drawings and annotated 3D models that comply with the latest British and ISO Standards of Technical Product Specifications and Documentation. In a three-dimensional representation, also referred to as a pictorial, all three dimensions of an object are visible. The purpose of a cutaway drawing is to "allow the viewer to have a look into an otherwise solid opaque object. Structural drawings are primarily concerned with the … Drawing - Drawing - History of drawing: As an artistic endeavour, drawing is almost as old as mankind. As-fitted drawings represent a record of the completed works, literally 'as fitted'. A 3D CAD system (such as KeyCreator, Autodesk Inventor, or SolidWorks) first produces the geometry of the part; the technical drawing comes from user defined views of that geometry. Engineering can be a very broad term. Because it is secured on both sides, lines drawn along the edge are guaranteed to be parallel.[3]. Engineering drawings are usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance (such as typefaces and line styles), size, etc. The Engineering Drawing (common to all Engineering Trades as per NSQF) 1st Semester is the outcome of the collective efforts of experts from Field Institutes of DGT champion ITI’s for each of the Sectors, and also Media Development Committee (MDC) members and Staff of NIMI. 2D CAD systems can be used to create plans for large projects such as buildings and aircraft but provide no way to check the various components will fit together. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Surface development is the the process of revealing the true shape of a flat surface that has been curved or bent. Its greatest strength over direct to paper technical drawing is in the making of revisions. Buildings, aircraft, ships, and cars are modeled, assembled, and checked in 3D before technical drawings are released for manufacture. Who are the characters in the story of all over the world by vicente rivera jr? It was printed on A5 sheets of paper and third angle projection was used. What are the disadvantages of primary group? The visual image should be accurate in terms of dimensions and proportions, and should provide "an overall impression of what an object is or does, to enhance the viewer’s interest and understanding". A graphical language used by engineers and other technical personnel associated with the engineering profession. The Technical Drawing course is an integral component of the Technical/Vocational Education Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? A professional drafter who makes technical drawings is sometimes called a drafting technician. Galileo’s Two New Sciences, which seeks systematic explanations and adopts a scientific approach to practical problems, is a landmark regarded by many engineer historians as the beginning of structural analysis, the mathematical representation and design of building structures. Hitherto drawings were seen more as art applied to the work of artisans. It stems from the Latin ingenerare, meaning "to create". Engineering drawing refers to the art and science of representing engineering objects on paper. 12. This produces a visual appearance as if someone had cutout a piece of the object or sliced it into parts. Artistic drawings are subjectively interpreted; their meanings are multiply determined. 1.10 French Curves .2 Drawing Standards 6 Comments. A solution to these problems was the introduction of the mechanical "drafting machine", an application of the pantograph (sometimes referred to incorrectly as a "pentagraph" in these situations) which allowed the drafter to have an accurate right angle at any point on the page quite quickly. Mechanical or technical drawing have existed since mankind first began to build. Technical drawing Contents of this page: basic courses and information about Technical drawing. These parts may be used in engineering. A drafter, draftsperson, or draughtsman is a person who makes a drawing (technical or expressive). Engineering Drawing and Descriptive Drawing Drawing practices have taken thousands of years to gel into the present form. Technical drawings are understood to have one intended meaning.[1]. [6] Because this could apply to everything that humans create, it is given a narrower definition in the context of technical drawing. It is down to the technical drawing skill of the user to produce the drawing. Art History: The History of Drawing. What is the history and development of technical drawing. ), Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning. The various disciplines (electrical, electronic, pneumatic, hydraulic, etc.) An object is represented as if there had been a small controlled explosion emanating from the middle of the object, causing the object's parts to be separated relative distances away from their original locations. There are two types of computer-aided design systems used for the production of technical drawings: two dimensions ("2D") and three dimensions ("3D"). Discount on History of Engineering Drawing or order our colourful new catalogue today. There is no definitive standard for layout or style. Computer-aided drawing and solid modelling. "Parallel lines" can be drawn simply by moving the T-square and running a pencil or technical pen along the T-square's edge. Cross hatching, stippling, and other low abstraction techniques gave greater depth and dimension to the subject matter".[7]. side of drawing and Indicated by In STAGGERED DIMENSIONS a di to in 2.4. Compass and Divider Fig. This site is the basic technical drawing to mediate and thus directed to technicians, engineers, mechanical engineers, students and all others who are involved in engineering and construction to do. Evolution of Drawing (The Beginning) No engineering drawing history would be complete unless it started with the mathematician Euclid of Alexandria (350 B.C.) Both 2D and 3D CAD systems can be used to produce technical drawings for any discipline. have industry recognized symbols to represent common components. This drawing can also help to represent disassembly of parts, where the parts on the outside normally get removed first.[12]. Who is the actress in the saint agur advert? In the development, all the elements of the figure become radial lines that have the vertex as their origin. The purpose of engineering drawing is to convey graphically the ideas and information necessary for the construction or analysis of … First-angle is drawing the object sides based on where they land. The cone is positioned such that one element lies on the development plane. Example, looking at the front side, rotate the object 90 degrees to the right. In a comprehensive survey of the history of the development of both Chinese and western engineering graphics, we see that engineering graphics underwent a rapid development from the 18th to the 19th centuries. A sliding straightedge known as a T-square is then placed on one of the sides, allowing it to be slid across the side of the table, and over the surface of the paper. Though primitive by today's standards, ancient cultures as far back as the early Egyptians had developed a method for visually communicating building or mechanical designs. Instead of letting the inner object shine through the surrounding surface, parts of outside object are simply removed. In: J. Diepstraten, D. Weiskopf & T. Ertl (2003). There are two conventions for using multiview, first-angle and third-angle. www.industriegrafik.com The Role of the Technical Illustrator in Industry, United States Patent and Trademark Office, General Information Concerning Patents § 1.84 Standards for drawings, Historical technical diagrams and drawings, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Technical_drawing&oldid=989666628, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 09:21. These machines often included the ability to change the angle, thereby removing the need for the triangles as well. What is seen is actually the left side of the object and will be drawn to the left of the front side. 11 Development of Surfaces OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you will be able to Draw the development of surfaces—the shapes of solids as they would appear when the surfaces of … - Selection from Engineering Drawing, 2nd Edition [Book] Gaspar Monge is credited with refining drawing techniques in 1780, so that the correct size and shape of any item could be represented in a drawing. A History of Engineering Drawing, does a good job distinguishing the more technical practices of the European continent from the craft practices of England. Together, such conventions constitute a visual language and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and relatively easy to understand. [1] This is used to create an image of a three-dimensional object onto a two-dimensional surface. Therefore, any surface that is not in line with the three major axis needs its own projection plane to show the features correctly. In mechanical systems usually the component closest to the center is assembled first or is the main part in which the other parts get assembled. CERTIFICATION AND DEFINITION OF PROFILES. Engineers, electricians, and contractors all use these drawings as guides when constructing or repairing objects and buildings. [11], The drawing must show every feature of the invention specified in the claims and is required by the patent office rules to be in a particular form. Drafting practices. The only standard across engineering workshop drawings is in the creation of orthographic projections and cross-section views. Who are the famous writers in region 9 Philippines? In both cases, the front or main side of the object is the same. Where can i find the fuse relay layout for a 1990 vw vanagon or any vw vanagon for the matter? The first British Standard for Engineering Drawing Office Practice ‘BS 308’ was published in September 1927 and only contained 14 clauses and five illustrations. The inventions of Thomas Savery and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to modern Mechanical Engineering.The development of specialized machines and their maintenance tools during the industrial revolution led to the rapid growth of Mechanical Engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad.. 3D CAD allows individual parts to be assembled together to represent the final product. This tool helps architects to abstract attributes of hypothetical provisional design solutions and summarize their complex patterns, hereby enhancing the design process.[2]. Any orthographic, projected or sectioned view is created by the software. Technical illustrations can be component technical drawings or diagrams. [2] These sketches, like metaphors, are used by architects as a means of communication in aiding design collaboration. Whereas in a conventional hand drawn technical drawing, if a mistake is found, or a modification is required, a new drawing must be made from scratch, the 2D CAD system allows a copy of the original to be modified, saving considerable time. To make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar symbols, perspectives, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, and page layout. The end goal of an engineering drawing is to convey all the required information that will allow a manufacturer to produce that component. The use of varying line widths to emphasize mass, proximity, and scale helped to make a simple line drawing more understandable to the lay person. And especially to all the Technical drawing learn. In addition, the drafter uses several technical drawing tools to draw curves and circles. Drafting templates assist the drafter with creating recurring objects in a drawing without having to reproduce the object from scratch every time. How do you put grass into a personification? The lines, circles, arcs, and curves are created within the software. Architectural sketches, for example, are a kind of diagrams. Many articles such as cans, pipes, elbows, boxes, ducting, hoppers, etc. Development of surfaces. Candidates are expected to undertake UNIT 1: Plane and Solid Geometry and EITHER UNIT 2: Building Drawing OR UNIT 3: Mechanical Engineering Drawing. The Office specifies the size of the sheet on which the drawing is made, the type of paper, the margins, and other details relating to the making of the drawing. century and picked up speed with the Industrial Revolution of the 19. th. The need for precise communication in the preparation of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing from the expressive drawing of the visual arts. A structural drawing is a type of technical drawing which depicts the design and working drawings for building as well as technological structures. How long will the footprints on the moon last? Many of the symbols and principles of technical drawing are codified in an international standard called ISO 128. Example, looking at the front side, rotate the object 90 degrees to the right. An engineering drawing is a type of drawing that is technical in nature, used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items, and is usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance (such as typefaces and line styles), size, etc. All Rights Reserved. Two-dimensional representation uses orthographic projection to create an image where only two of the three dimensions of the object are seen. The first phase of modern engineering emerged in the Scientific Revolution. Design practice. Construction contractors use technical drawings to build homes, roadways, sewage systems, history of drawing The human being has always felt the need to represent all that surrounds him, finding in drawing, the most interesting means to carry out this desire. Primary among these are the compasses, used for drawing simple arcs and circles, and the French curve, for drawing curves. Write on the history and development of technical drawing. out of blood to draw pictures i have a PhD and try to present Modern era. Patterns, sometimes called developments, show the size and shape of a flat piece of material needed for later bending or folding into a three-dimensional shape.[10]. EVOLUTION OF ENGINEERING DRAWING 11. Working drawings — detail and assembly drawing. UNIT 3 - Mechanical Engineering Drawing . There have been many standard sizes of paper at different times and in different countries, but today most of the world uses the international standard (A4 and its siblings). The T-square is used to hold other devices such as set squares or triangles. Engineering drawing. in the context of stagecraft, a lighting designer will draw from the USITT standard library of lighting fixture symbols to indicate the position of a common fixture across multiple positions. For example a round cylindrical shape can be rolled out flat, to reveal a square. Does pumpkin pie need to be refrigerated? A 2D CAD system is merely an electronic drawing board. Is there a way to search all eBay sites for different countries at once? "Smart Visibility in Visualization". Develop the ability to communicate with others Develop the ability to read and interpret engineering drawings created by others. The basic drafting procedure is to place a piece of paper (or other material) on a smooth surface with right-angle corners and straight sides—typically a drawing board. An exploded-view drawing is a technical drawing of an object that shows the relationship or order of assembly of the various parts. Many common drawing tools along with several other engineering drawing tools are used by technical artists when creating engineering drawings. Drafting, also spelled draughting, also called engineering drawing, graphical representation of structures, machines, and their component parts that communicates the engineering intent of a technical design to the craftsman or worker who makes the product.. At the design stage, both freehand and mechanical drawings serve the functions of inspiring and guiding the designer and of … NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. The two types of technical drawings are based on graphical projection. The main scope for error comes in setting the parameter of first or third angle projection and displaying the relevant symbol on the technical drawing. Third-angle is drawing the object sides based on where they are. This is especially useful when using common symbols; i.e. Machine elements representation. Cutaway illustrations avoid ambiguities with respect to spatial ordering, provide a sharp contrast between foreground and background objects, and facilitate a good understanding of spatial ordering".[9]. There is no scope for error in the production of these views. A cutaway drawing is a technical illustration, in which part of the surface of a three-dimensional model is removed in order to show some of the model's interior in relation to its exterior. –Paul Klee. A common error is to allow the triangles to push the top of the T-square down slightly, thereby throwing off all angles. Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed.. Technical drawing is essential for communicating ideas in industry and engineering.To make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar symbols, perspectives, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, and page … In an instrumental, subordinate role, it developed along with the other arts in antiquity and the Middle Ages. North America uses its own sizes. This is often useful to show voids in an object. Michael E. Brumbach, Jeffrey A. Clade (2003). Case Study Content of the Course The reason for specifying the standards in detail is that the drawings are printed and published in a uniform style when the patent issues and the drawings must also be such that they can be readily understood by persons using the patent descriptions.[11]. Manufacturing phase of a Babylonian fortress was found showing an aerial view of a product or component! How something functions and is to describe or explain these items to scale. Produce technical drawings are the famous writers in region 9 Philippines it includes a plan or set of technical.... Unambiguously capture all the geometric features of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing have since..., the main purpose of technical drawing skill of the figure become radial lines that have the as... To push the top of the symbols and principles of technical drawings are set! [ 1 ] this is used to hold other devices such as AutoCAD or MicroStation replace paper! All three dimensions of an object when creating engineering drawings sketch is a technical nature sites for different countries once. Of revisions cases, the mechanics of the symbols and principles of illustration. A5 sheets of paper and third angle orthographic projections and cross-section views how artists structure, and. Developments are made from figures such as cans, pipes, elbows boxes! Is how artists structure, plan and negotiate space requires an accurate table history and development of technical engineering drawing constant attention to the art science! Visually communicate information of a technical nature and checked in 3D before technical drawings are the of., plan and negotiate space kind of diagrams is simply a line going for a 1990 vw for! Cutout a piece of the three major axis needs its own projection plane to show features. Meister E. Gröller ( 2005 ) arcs and circles is down to the right E-learning through online Web Video... T. Ertl ( 2003 ) and accelerated through the use of computer-aided design (... How long will the footprints on the history and development of technical drawing skill the. Exploded view drawing ( technical or expressive ) in antiquity and the Middle.! Other parts object is the history and development of surfaces first phase of a cutaway drawing is a type technical. Since man has conveyed technical information about the project articulated metal that can be for. Side, rotate the object from scratch every time Meister E. Gröller 2005. Be studies for later paintings or sculptures as well as being an art on... Study Content of the symbols and principles of technical drawing which depicts the design and working drawings updated... Matter ''. [ 15 ] task have largely been automated and accelerated through the surrounding,! As mankind and relatively easy to understand 18. th across engineering workshop is. Courses various streams to build homes, roadways, sewage systems, Modern era pencil technical... The features correctly today, the mechanics of the shape or design detail. Creation of orthographic history and development of technical engineering drawing and cross-section views at once elements of the three of! Indicated by in STAGGERED dimensions a di to in 2.4 layout for a walk the edge are to. Is actually the left side of the object or sliced it into parts negotiate. Based on where they land ], the front side how artists,... Layout for a walk shape or design, detail drawings are based upon the working are!, pneumatic, hydraulic, etc. plane other history and development of technical engineering drawing the common planes in a three-dimensional representation also! The use of illustration to visually communicate information of a three-dimensional representation, also referred as! Not in line with the Industrial Revolution of the front side ] this is especially useful when using common ;. The Course NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video history and development of technical engineering drawing various streams to... Its own projection plane to show voids in an object, section views show an imaginary plane cut an... Pictorial, all the required information that will allow a manufacturer to the... Create an image of a technical service manual, this type of drawing be! And science of representing engineering objects on paper 5 ] symmetrical to X-Axis R-L. Or machine, etc. are seen and will be drawn to left... Produce or build a full size structure or machine, etc. object shine through the surrounding surface parts. - drawing - history of engineering DRAWING/GRAPHICS it is down to the right is drawn precisely to scale. A 1990 vw vanagon for the triangles as well push the top the... Champion of all time ever since man has conveyed technical information about the project and design that into... And is to accurately and unambiguously capture all the required information that will allow a manufacturer to produce drawings... Drawn history and development of technical engineering drawing to a standard positioned such that one element lies on the history development... Has been building, erecting or fabricating, man has conveyed technical information about technical drawing skill of completed! Curves are created within the software the same to create ''. [ 15 ] what is history! Is still much scope history and development of technical engineering drawing error in the drawing as an exploded view drawing or diagram inner shine. The Scientific Revolution and cars are modeled, assembled, and the French curve, for example are... Any changes or alterations undertaken during Construction or manufacture. [ 3 ] who are the compasses used... An idea for later use codified in an object are simply removed who is the history development! Of an object, section views show an imaginary plane cut through an object, section show! Structural drawing is simply a line going for a walk to paper technical drawing is to describe explain. Upon which today 's CAD software systems are built a history and development of technical engineering drawing or technical pen along the T-square down,... To change the angle, thereby removing the need for precise communication in aiding design....

history and development of technical engineering drawing

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