[29] Even so, he provided a further, deliberately crafted link to the world of Homeric epic. Pergamum, a city of the Roman province of Asia, in the west of what is now Asiatic Turkey, occupied a commanding position near the seaward end of the broad valley of the Caicus. Sometimes, to avoid persecution, or to just “get along”, we take the easy route and coexist. Church in Pergamum, Seven Church of Revelation Turkey, Seven Churches of Revelation, Biblical Tour Guide is a web site where we share with you our knowledge and offer you our top services. Jesus had John to pass along one of His prophetic letters to Pergamos (also referred to as Pergamum), in which He says: “I know thy works, and where you dwell, even where satan’s seat is.” The frieze is 2.30 metres high and has a total length of 113 metres, making it the second longest frieze surviving from antiquity, after the Parthenon Frieze in Athens. The once-thriving city lay forgotten and in ruins till 1864 when German engineer Carl Humann began excavating it, finding one of antiquities’ greatest monuments, the Altar of Zeus. In the east part of the courtyard, there were more than ten rows of seating laid out in front of the northern stoa for participants in the mysteries of Demeter. They κατοικεο/katoikeo or live or dwell in Pergamum. The early Attalids erected the first structures of the upper (royal) city, but the later kings Eumenes II and Attalus III, by their extensive building and rebuilding, were chiefly responsible for the city’s great architectural and artistic reputation. [19][20] In 716, Pergamon was sacked again by the armies of Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik. The majority of the surviving structure derives from a reconstruction of the temple which probably took place under Caracalla, or perhaps under Hadrian.[73]. [19][20] Under Isaac II Angelos (r. 1185–1195), the local see was promoted to a metropolitan bishopric, having previously been a suffragan diocese of the Metropolis of Ephesus.[20]. The city thus became the centre of a territorial realm, but Eumenes did not take the royal title. It corresponds to the third of seven Kingdom of Heaven parables told by our Lord Jesus in Matthew Chapter 13 which is the Parable of the Mustard Seed. Today, only the steps around the altar’s base can be seen in the Pergamum museum in Berlin. The nearly 200 metre wide Pergamon Bridge under the forecourt of the Red Basilica in the centre of Bergama is the largest bridge substruction from antiquity.[62]. The city gradually declined during Late Antiquity, and its settled core contracted to the acropolis, which was fortified by Emperor Constans II (r. Kosmetatou, Elizabeth (2003) "The Attalids of Pergamon," in Andrew Erskine, ed.. Nagy, Gregory (1998). The first temple of the imperial … The foundations, measuring around 12.70 x 21.80 metres, are still visible today. [80] The middle terrace was around 250 metres long and 70 metres wide at the centre. Pergamum are a metalcore band from the Central Coast. This theater is one of the steepest ones preserved in Turkey today. In their constructive adaptation of the myth, the Attalids stood within the tradition of the other, older Hellenistic dynasties, who legitimized themselves through divine descent, and sought to increase their own prestige. Today ancient Pergamum … The key signs of this development are primarily the halls built under Eumenes II, whose back chambers were probably used for trade. The pipe consisted of three channels, which ended 3 km north of the citadel, before reaching the valley, and emptied into a pool, which included a double sedimentation tank. In honour of Asclepius, a particular type of non-venomous snake was often used in healing rituals. You can still see this “throne” today at the Pergamum Museum in Germany. Numerous honorific inscriptions indicate his work and his exceptional position in Pergamon at this time.[17]. [57] The surface of the street consisted of andesite blocks up to 5 metres wide, 1 metre long and 30 cm deep. It likely became the capital of the new theme of Neokastra, established by Manuel. Philatarius founded Pergamum in the 3rd Century B.C. With the expansion of the Anatolian beyliks, Pergamon was absorbed into the beylik of Karasids shortly after 1300, and then conquered by the Ottoman beylik. The Ancient Theatre Archive. Pliny had called it, “longe clarissimum Asiae Pergamum.” The Original Throne of Satan in the Cretan City of Pergamon The original city of Pergamon and possibly another throne of Satan I have found to be in the exact location where in the Old world where you would most likely find the ancient Greek God of wisdom, medicine, healing, rejuvenation and physicians known as ‘Asclepius’ . At this time Pergamon was in the possession of the family of Gongylos from Eretria, a Greek favourable to the Achaemenid Empire who had taken refuge in Asia Minor and obtained the territory of Pergamon from Xerxes I, and Xenophon was hosted by his widow Hellas.[9]. The sanctuary was old; its activity can be traced back to the fourth century BC. This was the place ‘where Satan’s throne is’ (Rev. During the excavations fragments of statues of Trajan and Hadrian were found in the rubble of cella, including their portrait heads, as well as fragments of the cult statue of Zeus Philios.[78]. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Thus the size and arrangement of the rooms differed from house to house. At a height of 36 metres, it is the steepest of all ancient theatres. When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome. Pergamum is listed third of the ‘seven churches of Asia’ (Rev. In late antiquity, it experienced a limited economic recovery. His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263; Eumenes I 263-241; Attalus I 241-197; Eumenes II 197-159; Attalus II 159-138; Attalus III 138-133. This was challenged by Aristonicus who claimed to be Attalus III's brother and led an armed uprising against the Romans with the help of Blossius, a famous Stoic philosopher. Why did Christ refer to Pergamum (or modern day Bergama, Turkey) as the place where Satan lives and where his throne is to be found? Since the 19th century excavations, it has generally been identified with an annex of the northern stoa of the sanctuary of Athena in the Upper Citadel, which was built by Eumenes II. Especially in this latter type there is often a second story accessed by stairways. Corrections? Their significance for architectural history lies in the form of the last kilometres from the mountains through a 200-metre-deep (660 ft) valley to the Akropolis. For the construction under Eumenes II, a city block of 35 x 45 m can be reconstructed, subject to significant variation as a result of the terrain. The city is centered around a 335-metre-high (1,099 ft) mesa of andesite which formed its acropolis. Pergamon, Mysia, circa 450 BC. Mithridates VI was celebrated in the city as a new Pergamus. Its structure sits on two parallel terraces, the south one about 107.4 metres above sea level and the north one about 109.8 metres above sea level. The southeast slope and the whole western slope of the hill were now settled and opened up by streets. Today Turkish government is trying to get it back from Germany bringing the issue to … noun an ancient Greek kingdom on the coast of Asia Minor: later a Roman province. Some locations may have last minute updates due to changing circumstances. Under his leadership the Lower Agora, the House of Attalos, the Gymnasion, and the Sanctuary of Demeter were brought to light. In the course of the expansion of the city under Eumenes, the commercial character of the Upper Agora was further developed. All the other buildings in the sanctuary were made out of trachyte, but the visible part of the temple was made of marble, or at least had a marble cladding. Galen, the most famous doctor in the ancient Roman Empire and personal physician of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, worked in the Asclepium for many years. Yet it was only under Trajan and his successors that a comprehensive redesign and remodelling of the city took place, with the construction a Roman 'new city' at the base of the Acropolis. Today, all that's left there is the foundation; the Altar of Zeus is more than a thousand miles away. Sabine Müller, "Genealogie und Legitimation in den hellenistischen Reichen," in Hartwin Brandt, Katrin Köhler, Ulrike Siewert (ed. Numerous public buildings were constructed, as well as a new marketplace south of the acropolis and a new gymnasion in the east. It corresponds to the third of seven Kingdom of Heaven parables told by our Lord Jesus in Matthew Chapter 13 which is the Parable of the Mustard Seed. Since 2006, the excavations have been led by Felix Pirson.[42]. It was built on a hill that towered about 1000 feet above the plain. Today Turkish government is trying to get it back from Germany This sanctuary grew in fame and was considered one of the most famous therapeutic and healing centers of the Roman world. At the beginning of the 19th century, Charles Robert Cockerell produced a detailed account and Otto Magnus von Stackelberg made important sketches. Roman remains include an amphitheatre, a theatre, and a racetrack. Separate from this, a new area was laid out in Roman times, consisting of a whole new city west of the Selinus river, with all necessary infrastructure, including baths, theatres, stadiums, and sanctuaries. The temple sits on a 2.9-metre-high (9.5 ft) podium on top of a vaulted terrace. Pergamon's oldest temple is a sanctuary of Athena from the 4th century BC. Over time the so-called 'Upper agora' was developed at the south end of this. Today, all that's left there is the foundation; the Altar of Zeus is more than a thousand miles away. Translation, Satan dwells in Pergamum and continues to dwell in this location moving forward. Their fortress and palace stood on the peak of the hill, while the town itself occupied the lower slopes. [23] But the Pergamenes made offerings to Telephus[24] and the grave of his mother Auge was located in Pergamon near the Caicus. The Sanctuary of Athena is the oldest known Temple in Pergamon and dates back to the 4 century BC. Ancient Lands and Their Current Names. For those who have visited this impressive Roman site in the past, you might recall the sky-tram running from the base of the mountain to the park entrance. [30], However, for the Attalids, it was apparently the genealogical connection to Heracles that was crucial, since all the other Hellenistic dynasties had long established such links:[31] the Ptolemies derived themselves directly from Heracles,[32] the Antigonids inserted Heracles into their family tree in the reign of Philip V at the end of the 3rd century BC at the latest,[33] and the Seleucids claimed descent from Heracles' brother Apollo. Pergamos, to which the ancient writers also gave the neuter form of the name, was a city of Mysia of the ancient Roman province of Asia, in the Caicus valley, 3 miles from the river, and about 15 miles from the sea. Pergamon or Pergamum (/ˈpɜːrɡəmən/ or /ˈpɜːrɡəmɒn/; Ancient Greek: Πέργαμον), also referred to by its modern Greek form Pergamos (Greek: Πέργαμος)[a][1], was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Mysia. It was probably the site of a settlement from a very early date. In addition to cisterns, there was a system of nine pipes (seven Hellenistic ceramic pipes and two open Roman channels. Updates? Pergamos also had a famous temple of Esculapius, who was represented under the … The kingdom of Pergamum yielded much wealth, especially in agricultural surpluses and silver, first to the Attalid rulers and later to Rome. It consisted of a courtyard surrounded by stoas and other structures, measuring roughly 36 x 74 metres. This throne was on top of a 800 foot hill next to the city. It was a Doric tetrastyle prostyle temple, with three triglyphs and metopes for each span in the entablature. The balustrade of the upper level of the north and east stoas was decorated with reliefs depicting weapons which commemorated Eumenes II's military victory. But when the Apostle John wrote his letter to the church there, it was one of … [25] Pergamon thus entered the Trojan epic cycle, with its ruler said to have been an Arcadian who had fought with Telephus against Agamemnon when he landed at the Caicus, mistook it for Troy and began to ravage the land. The Second World War also caused a break in work at Pergamon, which lasted until 1957. The kingdom of Pergamon was divided between Rome, Pontus, and Cappadocia, with the bulk of its territory becoming the new Roman province of Asia. [56], The course of the main street, which winds up the hill to the Acropolis with a series of hairpin turns, is typical of the street system of Pergamon. a circular treatment center (sometimes known as the Temple of Telesphorus), the Via Tecta (or the Sacred Way, which is a colonnaded street leading to the sanctuary) and, Aristocles (1st century AD), a Greek sophist. The Church of Pergamos (Pergamum) is the third of seven Churches addressed in Revelation Chapters 2 & 3. He was followed by the architectural historian Wilhelm Dörpfeld from 1900 to 1911, who was responsible for the most important discoveries. According to Christian tradition, in the year 92 Saint Antipas, the first bishop of Pergamum ordained by John the Apostle, was a victim of an early clash between Serapis worshippers and Christians. Notice the snake, which was a symbol associated with Asclepius. Pergamos, according to Dr. Young, was "A celebrated city of Mysia, near the river Caicus." Pergamum's history starts with a man who called Philatarius, who was friend of General Lysimachus, once established Ephesus Tours. A permanent residence is the idea. Pergamon still remained a famous city and the noteworthy luxuries of Lucullus included imported wares from the city, which continued to be the site of a conventus (regional assembly). A wide passage or colonnade on the north side of the courtyard often opened onto foyers, which enabled access to other rooms. It consists of a broad, elongated base and a relatively small peak - the upper city. [50] After these renovations, the Upper Agora thus served as a centre for trade and spectacle in the city. As a result of these efforts, Carl Humann, who had been carrying out low-level excavations at Pergamon for the previous few years and had discovered for example the architrave inscription of the Temple of Demeter in 1875, was entrusted with carry out work in the area of the altar of Zeus in 1878, where he continued to work until 1886. Archeology has found many gifts and dedications that people would make afterwards, such as small terracotta body parts, no doubt representing what had been healed. [14] The two brothers Eumenes II and Attalus II displayed the most distinctive trait of the Attalids: a pronounced sense of family without rivalry or intrigue - rare amongst the Hellenistic dynasties. It consists of a main building and two round towers within an enormous temenos or sacred area. But East Berlin is also where Hitler's headquarters were located. The temple was about 7 metres wide by 12 metres long, and sat on a three-stepped foundation. Rome accepted it and set up the province of Asia (129), which included Ionia and the territory of Pergamum, but left the other regions to neighbouring kings, who were clients of Rome. [82], The upper terrace measured 150 x 70 metres square, making it the largest of the three terraces. Until 188 BC, it had not grown significantly since its founding by Philetaerus, and covered c. 21 hectares (52 acres). They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens. [20] The Ottoman Sultan Murad III had two large alabaster urns transported from the ruins of Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave in the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.[21]. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The plan of Pergamon was affected by the extreme steepness of the site. From 1957 to 1968, Erich Boehringer worked on the Asklepieion in particular, but also carried out important work on the lower city as a whole and performed survey work, which increased knowledge of the countryside surrounding the city. The massif is about one kilometre wide and around 5.5 km long from north to south. [38] A proper, multi-page description with plans, elevations, and views of the city and its ruins was first produced by Charles Texier when he published the second volume of his Description de l’Asie mineure. "Die antiken Flußüberbauungen von Pergamon und Nysa (Türkei),", Boris Ilakovac, "Unbekannte Herstellungsmethode römischer Bleirohre.". At this time, the system is being repaired so the larger busses have to hire a series of cabs to ferry people to the top. The Lord commended them for holding fast to the faith, even though one of their members had already been martyred, Antipas the “faithful witness.” “Witness” in Greek is martys ; it is because the early church had so many witnesses like Antipas who were “faithful unto death” (Rev. The story that parchment was invented by the Pergamenes because the Ptolemies in Alexandria had a monopoly on papyrus production is not true. A 20-metre-wide (66 ft) staircase cut into the base on the western side leads up to the upper structure, which is surrounded by a colonnade, and consists of a colonnaded courtyard, separated from the staircase by a colonnade. [39], In 1864/5, the German engineer Carl Humann visited Pergamon for the first time. A permanent residence is the idea. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. [12] Only at this point did an entirely independent Pergamene kingdom come into existence, which would reach its greatest power and territorial extent in 188 BC. Then his relatives established the Pergamum Kingdom. Pergamum, also known as Pergamos, was called the greatest city in Asia Minor. The ruins of Pergamum sit atop a hill overlooking the modern-day city of Bergama. During the reign of Eumenes II and Attalos II, there was a substantial expansion of the city. Thus, on the one hand, Eurypylus who must have been part of the dynastic line as a result of the appropriation of the myth, was not mentioned in the hymn sung in honour of Telephus in the Asclepieion. At this time, the system is being repaired so the larger busses have to … Ruins of Pergamum, present-day Bergama, Turkey. Only under Eumenes II was this approach discarded and the city plan begins to show signs of an overall plan. Most of the finds from the Pergamon excavations before the First World War were taken to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, with a smaller portion going to the İstanbul Archaeological Museum after it was opened in 1891. They are one and the same. There are few traces of the pre-Hellenistic city, since in the following period the terrain was profoundly changed and the construction of broad terraces involved the removal of almost all earlier structures. pur'-ga-mos, or pur'-ga-mum (he Pergamos, or to Pergamon): 1. The Attalids made the city of Pergamum one of the most important and beautiful of all Greek cities in the Hellenistic Age; it is one of the most outstanding examples of city planning in that period. A consequence of the city's growth was the construction of new buildings over old ones, since there was not sufficient space. It was discovered in 1871 and taken to Germany, where it stands reconstructed today in the East Berlin Museum. the ancient capital of this kingdom; now the site of Bergama, in W Turkey. It is known as the Lower Gymnasium and has been identified as the boys' gymnasium. They κατοικεο/katoikeo or live or dwell in Pergamum. The side facing the Cetius river is a sharp cliff, while the side facing the Selinus is a little rough. This is matched by the shape of the triglyphs, which usually consist of a sequence of two triglyphs and two metopes, but are instead composed of three of triglyphs and three metopes. The apostle John wrote a letter to the Christians who lived in Pergamum. [10] Only with Alexander the Great was Pergamon and the surrounding area removed from Persian control. To the west of the acropolis, the Selinus River (modern Bergamaçay) flows through the city, while the Ketios river (modern Kestelçay) passes by to the east. ancient name of Bergama. Possible coinage of the Greek ruler Gongylos, wearing the Persian cap on the reverse, as ruler of Pergamon for the Achaemenid Empire. The marble temple sits on a podium, 4.5 metres above the level of the theatre terrace and was an Ionic prostyle temple. The interior walls of this colonnade had a further frieze, depicting the life of Telephus, the son of Heracles and mythical founder of Pergamon. Initially they ruled Pergamum as vassals of the Seleucid kingdom, but Eumenes I declared himself independent of Antiochus I (263 bce). Thyatira-Akhisar. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. Today, all that's left of the city of Pergamum, now in modern-day Turkey, are ruins. Roughly 800 initiates could fit in these seats.[85]. PERGAMOS; PERGAMUM. The sanctuary was entered through a Propylon from the east, which led to a courtyard surrounded by stoas on three sides. [37], In the late 18th century, these visits were reinforced by a scholarly (especially ancient historical) desire for research, epitomised by Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, a traveller in Asia Minor and French ambassador to the Sublime Porte in Istanbul from 1784 to 1791. After the First World War the Bergama Museum was opened, which has received all finds discovered since then. At the beginning of the third century, Caracalla granted the city a third neocorate, but the decline had already set in. Pliny the Elder refers to the city as the most important in the province[18] and the local aristocracy continued to reach the highest circles of power in the 1st century AD, like Aulus Julius Quadratus who was consul in 94 and 105. Philetairos' design of the city was shaped above all by circumstantial considerations. This terrace had no space for the circular orchestra which was normal in a Greek theatre, so only a wooden stage building was built which could be taken down when there was no performance taking place. The pronaos was four columns wide and two columns deep and was accessed by a staircase of twenty-five steps. The church at Pergamum and Satan have one thing in common, their home town. In Asia Minor a library rivaling that of Alexandria was set up at. The great temples and dramatic theater are visible from anywhere in the city, as they were meant to be. The pipe from the pool to the Acropolis consisted of only a single channel - a lead pipe pressurised to 200 mH2O. The base of the cult image inside the cella supported three cult statues. A state-of-the-art cable car carried us to the top of the hill where we viewed extensively excavated ruins. The lower part of the Acropolis also contains the following structures: Three kilometres (1.9 miles) south of the Acropolis at (39° 7′ 9″ N, 27° 9′ 56″ E), down in the valley, there was the Sanctuary of Asclepius (also known as the Asclepium), the god of healing. ", W. Dörpfeld, "Die Arbeiten zu Pergamon 1901–1902. Elizabeth Kosmetatou, "The Attalids of Pergamon" in Andrew Erskine, E.J. Its monuments included a theatre; the temple to Athena Nicephorus; and the great altar of Zeus with its richly decorated frieze, a masterpiece of Hellenistic art. Further Roman baths were constructed to the west of the Ionic temple.[83]. [49] In the west, the 'West Chamber' was built which might have served as a market administration building. Pergamum is the Latin transliteration of the Greek name Pergamos (also known as Pergamon), which belonged to a celebrated city of Mysia (a region of Asia Minor, part of Anatolia, modern Turkey), situated about thirty kilometers from the west-coast. [27] In a less heroic version, Grynos the son of Eurypylus named a city after him in gratitude for a favour. In addition, at the city limits the shrine to Asclepius (the god of healing) was expanded into a lavish spa. [6] Earlier habitation in the Bronze Age cannot be demonstrated, although Bronze Age stone tools are found in the surrounding area. The Great Altar of Pergamon, on display in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, Germany, For the altar's construction, the required flat area was skillfully created through terracing, in order to allow it to be oriented in relation to the neighbouring Temple of Athena. [19][20], It suffered from the attacks of the Seljuks on western Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071: after attacks in 1109 and in 1113, the city was largely destroyed and rebuilt only by Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (r. 1143–1180) in c. 1170. Pergamum was the chief center of cultural and intellectual life of the "Hellenistic" world. The regular people came up the hill to donate things to the Gods. https://www.britannica.com/place/Pergamum, UNESCO World Heritage Convention - Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Pergamon, Turkey, Pergamum - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). As a result of this, the streets had to turn hairpin corners, so that the hill could be climbed as comfortably and quickly as possible. Telephus refused to participate in the Trojan War, but his son Eurypylus fought on the side of the Trojans. It only takes a few moments to realize there are places mentioned in the Bible that we cannot find on a map, today. September 17, 2020,Good afternoon,Letter to Pergamum. : Volume XI 2: Oskar Ziegenaus, Gioia de Luca: Volume XIV: Doris Pinkwart, Wolf Stammnitz. What is visible today is primarily from the rebuild in the 2 nd century AD after the earthquake, but the 1 st century Asklepion would have been essentially the same. The Gods lived on top of the hill. 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' opened onto foyers, which was probably dedicated to Zeus on the north side, the most famous from. Thus the size and arrangement of the ‘ seven Churches of Asia was in Pergamon at point. I and Eumenes II constructed victory monuments, most notably the Gallic dedications had formal under... A free city top of a city that expanded in a planned and controlled manner ( requires login ) day. Had failed to heed to biblical warnings against worldliness to you to judge seven Hellenistic ceramic pipes and columns! For trade where they were meant to be late and are not before. 2 & 3 of towns by sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes enter the building Wolf! Monopoly on papyrus production is not certain and mounted, now in modern-day Turkey, are ruins Library is... W Turkey vassals of the `` Hellenistic '' world Eurypylus named a city that in. Altar of Zeus is more than a thousand miles away his early training at the beginning the... Notice the snake pronaos was four columns wide and around 5.5 km long from north to.. Stands reconstructed today in the historic region of Turkey Asia was in Pergamon were concentrated on the top of 800... Brick at a height of 36 metres, are ruins slope of the ‘ seven Churches addressed in 2:13... In 88 BC, Mithridates VI made the city itself, but was crushed, restored and,... Experienced a limited economic recovery lived in Pergamum and Satan have one thing in,! And 2.3 metres wide at the city the fall of Rome, in,...

where is pergamum today

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